The Modern Age is the age of Science. Now-a-days we cannot take a single step forward without taking the help of Science. Science has made us what we are today. The Wonderful Inventions of Modern Science are so numerous that all of them cannot be mentioned within the short space of an Essay. Ancient timings man was used to travel by bullock cart but now-a-days man can travel from one place to another place world-wide within a few hours time by Aeroplanes. Science has Invented many wonderful machines which made our daily life very easy and smooth. Like Machine learning, Artificial Intelligence which can make traffice signals without the help of man. Many Developed Countries like Europe, India can manage their traffic signals by Artificial Intelligence.

Heavy Duty Cranes can lift heavy weights, Tractors can plough fields.
Machines can cook our food and serve it for us. Electricity is another wonderful inventions of Modern science. Electricity made night to day itself. Science has made us wonderful inventions in case of medicines also.

Vaccines check the spread of infections as cholera, smallpox, etc. penicillin and streptomycin have proved to be a boon for humanity. Through the x-ray and cat scanners we can see the inner parts of the human body.  COVID-19 Pandemic also controlled by Science by inventing injections although it is on trial basis but yes, many human life save out of danger by wonderful inventions of life saving drugs.

Computer is another recent wonderful Inventions of Modern science. Computer is a machine which processes information and preserves memory. Computer makes calculation at very fast rate. Computer are being used in every field e.g. medicine, communication, space research, predicting weather, banks, industry, business and scientific research etc.

Still Science will contiue to play a more & more important role in the life of Man & society which cannot be deniel. Science can destroy a modern city in the Twinkle of eye by atomic Energy like Herosima and Nagasaki.

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Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 2

List of Tables 2
Introduction 3
Gap analysis: Capability Gap Analysis 3
Introduction 3
Capability narrative 5
Gap analysis: KSF – Capability Analysis 7
Introduction 7
Capability/KSF narrative 8
Strategy development 10
Introduction 10
Corporate-level strategies 10
Generic Business-level strategies 11
Strategies narrative 12
Strategy Evaluation 13
Introduction 13

Evaluative Models 13
Predictive Financial Indicators 14
Contemporary strategy evaluation 15
References 15
Appendices 20
Appendix 1 Resource Based Value 20
Appendix 2 Porter’s Five Force Model 21

List of Tables
Table 1 Capability gap analysis: NutriNut 3
Table 2 Capability rating by resource 5
Table 3 KSF Capability: NutriNut 7
Table 4 Rating KSFs Capabilities: NutriNut 8
Table 5 Product-market Matrix 1: NutriNut 11
Table 6 Product-market Matrix2: NutriNut 12

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 3

This critically analytical paper is in reference to the gap analysis made towards business and
corporate level strategies of NutriNut, the selected case study. In this paper the Capability
Gap Analysis, Capability Analysis of Key Success Factors, developmental strategies and
evaluation of the same by NutriNut are initiated for appropriate business development.

Gap analysis: Capability Gap Analysis
The role of resources and their capabilities at NutriNut, concentrates in terms of creating
competitive advantage in the current market of Australia and its plan to be a part of
international business community. According to resource-based view (or the RBV), NutriNut
is very valuable as it has the R&D accumulated components of Macadamia oil. The
components of this oil are Palmitoleic and Oleic Acid that comes in combination with
Phytosterols and Linoleic Fatty Acid properties, whereby a unique skin care product gets its
shape. This is the ultimate strength of this company and the combination of the same is
restricted to its owner, Tracey Newman.

Table 1 Capability gap analysis: NutriNut
Functional area Capabilities



Operations Capability to
manufacture in
Adding continuous

The manufacturing
units are limited to
Australian market, as
of now.

Red Earth Natio: has
the reputation of
growing faster with
appropriate service

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 4

development to
Prompt Services

Newman is particular
about the operational
Services are already


Neek Skin Organics:
is very popular and a
brand representing
manufacturing units
as per increasing

Pricing Following income of
the targeted
Price ranges should
vary as per
manufacturing costs

High fixed costs of
the Nutri-Nut
Low level differences
among the products

MooGoo: Prices vary
as per the currency of
the respective nation
Iluka: Variations in
quantity and pricing
of the product for
different classes of
Mukti Organics: Got
fixed price as it
concentrates in upper
class of the society
for maintaining brand

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 5

Source: Adapted from Grant et al. (2014)

Table 2 Capability rating by resource

Source: Adapted from Grant et al. (2014)

Capability narrative
Based on the aforementioned status of the capabilities of NutriNut in comparison with its
competitors, this report lay focus on five basic capabilities that will assist the company in

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 6

achieving better position amidst highly competitive market. These capabilities are discussed
Tangible resources, as in physical capability: In this analytical domain of assessing the
capability of NutriNut, it has bene discovered that the company is better than its competitors.
Its role is very clear in offering absolute organic product with excellent physical appeal
(Teece, 2007; Ichrakie, 2013).
Intangible resources, as in branding domain: Here, the position and role of NutriNut appears
same as Neek Skin Organics. However, it is important to note here that all the other
competitors are performing much better in establishing their brand image in the market.
Davila, 2009; Ichrakie, 2013)

Processes and systems, as in the selection of decision tools: According to the research
initiatives of Teece (2009) and Broadbent & Laughlin (2009) the business proceedings of a
company must have firm decisive tools. In this case NutriNBut relies absolutely on the
decision of its owner, whereas all the other companies follow the decision of the Board of
Directors, who are experts in diversified fields of manufacturing and marketing.
Organisational culture, as in the maintenance of workplace attitude: The competitive edge in
terms of workplace attitude has been widely discussed by Summers and Smith (2014) who
laid emphasis on transparency of communication among every section of the organisation.
NutriNut acts with excellence in this domain and this is better than its competitors.

Organisational culture, as in the maintenance of ethics & values: in terms of maintenance of
ethics and values, Bisbe & Malagueño (2009) and Schiller and Perera (2012) marks that an
organisational culture should be well established as per the selected marketing domain. The
role of NutriNut in this approach is remains average as it is also ready to take on adaption of
different cultures as per the targeted market in international expansion process.

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 7

Gap analysis: KSF – Capability Analysis
In order to develop organisational status the implementation of key success factors from the
external environment and the internal industry conditions must get the necessary competitive
capabilities for gaining sustainability and growth (Grant, et al. 2014). According to the
interpretations of Wu, et al (2010) for attaining regular growth, an organisation must have
adequate amount of understanding about its activities, skills and resources. These are the
aspects that must get analysd and reviewed in accordance to the competitive trend of the
market. There are some relevant resources and professional skills among the employees of
NutriNut that remain liable to get noted when it comes to the analytical platform of
understanding the market positionin
g of NutriNut.

Table 3 KSF Capability: NutriNut
Key Success Factors Capabilities
Research and Development Unique use of Macadamia Nut Oil
Innovation The management in particular ask for new ideas
and innovative approaches to extend marketing
expansion of the company

Communication Transparency All the employees and staff members are
comfortable in getting communication with the
owner of the company

Workplace Attitude At NutriNut there is a positive vibe in the

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 8

workplace and there is no trace of discrimination
at any ground

Adaption The company is well prepared to adapt every
possible change that the new market demands

Source: Adapted from Grant et al. (2014)

Table 4 Rating KSFs Capabilities: NutriNut

KSF’s 1 2 3 4 5
Research and Development          
Communication Transparency          
Workplace Attitude          
Delivery Services      

Source: Adapted from Grant et al. (2014)

Capability/KSF narrative
Research and Development: The R&D of NutriNut is very highly sophisticated. Its optimum
and unique way of extracting the Macadamia Nut Oil is the strongest point of the
organisational business of the company.

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 9

Innovation: Pollock, et al (2009) considered the essence of innovation as the key to the
success of any organisational strategy. In this case, NutriNut is very open to suggestions from
the employees and the staff members. It even encourages innovative ideas and changes for
organisational development.
Communication Transparency:This is sector that is in great demand for international
expansion of any firm or organisation (Felice and Petrillo, 2013). For NutriNut the
transparency within the organisation is very visible and the same is assured to reach the
consumers for building customer loyalty in the market.
Workplace Attitude: Positive workplace attitude is the key to organisational growth of
NutriNut in Australia. However, the company should also need to accept changes in its
workplace attitude as it decides to expand markets in Asian nations (Bentes, et al 2012). It is
here that the company must have resistance the risks and demands of the competitive market

Technology: Currently, NutriNut is in demand of highly sophisticated technological backs up
for managing the extensive online selling in the European nations. This is a domain that must
get well nurtured and monitored with regular upgradation (Sara and Michael, 2007).
Price: The current pricing strategy of NutriNut is very fixed. This must be changed to more
flexible status as the company decides to cross borders (Kotler, et al., 2013).
Delivery Services: Based on the speculations of Poveda-Bautista (2012) on international
expansion, it is important that NutriNut organise its delivery proceedings as per the
favourable services in every particular country. In case, there is a delay the possibilities of
losing the client gets high.

Strategy development

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 10

According to the research led by Bogomyagkov and Machulskyi (2012), the corporate-level
strategies concentrate in the process of identifying the core competitors of a company, along
with the kind of businesses that can create threat for the company. It is also a strategic
management level, whereby the headquarter must remain efficient in handling all the other
business corporate units of the company. On the other hand, business level strategies is about
the adopt of the appropriate strategic structure to meet the competitive demands of the
company. This is about the process of making decisions in favour of eeting business oriented
competitive edges for a company (Bogomyagkov and Machulskyi, 2012).

Corporate-level strategies
In order to meet the current organisational demands, NutriNut must follow Resource-Based
View, in combination with agency theory for its global expansion. As marked by Daniel
(2015) the implementation of ‘agency theory’ concentrates in ‘value creation’ among the
consumers, and targets towards ‘wealth creation’ for the shareholders. An addition of RBV to
this theory can add the elements of innovation and uniqueness of the products of NutriNut
(see Appendix 1). As noted by Kraaijenbrink, et al (2010) the formulation of RBV can offer
room for new ideas in the new markets. This is something that can combine with agency

theory and will assist in the growth of NutriNut as shown in Table 5 below:
Table 5 Product-market Matrix 1: NutriNut

Strategic Analysis of NutriNut 11

Source: Grant, et al. 2014)

Generic Business-level strategies
For NutriNut, it is important to consider the cost leadership strategy and unlimited resources
model under Porter’s generic strategies. According to Drnevich and Croson (2013) the
generic strategic approach assists the company in pursuing the competitive advantage over
the targeted market. Since NutriNut is very fixed with its costing strategy, the generic
approach to the same will add consumer-oriented effectiveness to the prices of the products.
A detailed assessment of “advantage or necessity” led by unlimited resources model will
create demand oriented channel in terms of manufacturing the products for the respective
market as noted in Table 6:
Table 6 Product-market Matrix2: NutriNut

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Assessment Criteria 1.1 Explain how models of organization culture can be used to achieve
organizational objectives.
Siemens in order to achieve its strategic and operational objectives of expansion into automation and
digitization need to enhance its corporate culture as well along with other business strategies. The company
can consider the various dimensions of culture as proposed by Geert Hofstede (Browaeys & Marie-Joelle,
n.d.). As per Geert Hofstede there are five cultural dimensions which are:
Power distance: the power distance is defined as the extent to which powers are dispersed unequally in the
organization. As per these dimension Siemens need to develop a culture of cordial relationship between
superiors and subordinates bridging the status gap. Managers should not be viewed as dictator by its
Individualism vs. collectivism: In case of Individualism culture employees are more self centered and
maintains less interpersonal relationship with others in the organization whereas in a collectivism
organizational culture group integration is of high importance. Siemens through effective training and
development should try to promote group cohesiveness in the organization.
Masculinity – Femininity: This dimension is related to the gender discrimination in terms of values. Siemens
should maintain a balance in distribution of job roles, responsibilities and remuneration between its both
male and female workers.
Uncertainty Avoidance: This relates to the tolerant point of a member to face any uncertain circumstances in
the organization. Siemens through its tactful operation strategy need to develop a culture of low uncertainty

Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation: A long term orientation values job more than customs and relations
whereas organization inhibiting short term orientation values its worker and its belief system. Siemens need
to be sensitive towards its organizational as well as employee’s value system.

Assessment Criteria 1.2 explain the difference between organizational and national culture
Germans believe in focusing on the task assigned to them. One of the dominant issue and central part of all
business interactions is the performance of the task. German culture also defines the type of communication.
The relationship level takes up a more subservient role in proficient life. Additionally, there are numerous
bylaws, regulations, techniques and methods in the German companies. Written agreements and contracts
are preferred by the German business people. Non-compliance to these rules and regulations may invite

penalties and rigid consequences. Though this culture foster consistency and mutual obligation yet it leaves
no room for suppleness and individual fortitude (Expatica Germany, 2014) . Siemens also follows the same
corporate culture of their home country to a great extent

(Cheng & Seeger, 2011) carried out a study to assess the corporate culture of two different countries and
find out whether the incompatible cultures may lead to synergy effect or not. He found out that
understanding of cross culture is indispensable for mergers and acquisitions. Siemens is considered as the
model of German engineering expertise. It has long-standing custom of worker synchronization and
influential employee’s assemblies. Siemens also follows the German pattern of following standard operating
procedures and processes. Moreover, Siemens observes a systematic process for decision-making and lay
emphasis on detailing and performing task in order assigned.

As per the report of (CGMA, 2014) , Siemens have executed transparency in their meetings by encouraging
uncluttered debates on moral issues and the ways to handle them. Such unambiguousness includes the
exterior reportage of obedience linked progresses (Passport to trade 2.0, 2014a) stated that the Germans have
inclination to be extra casual about time and constantly make certain they can manage time for the purpose
of marketing. It also asserted that Germans are culturally aware and they have anticipations that others
should understand them as an independent country. They are straightforward in their language and
interpersonal communications in the organizations are largely belligerent and emphatic. Hinner (2009)
stated in Cheng et al (2011) that Germans think that trivial talks are spoiling time activity as it has nothing to
do with the work they are doing. German executives tend to offer their views in more of an argumentative
style and open vocal belligerence appear to be endured more in the German society.

Germans observes low degree of flexibility and spontaneity in attitudes and values. They have clear
demarcation between the things and people which enable them to live an organised life. Unexpected changes
in the transactions in the business are not welcomed by them even if it is beneficial for them and they abhor
absurdity in business as they take it very seriously. Moreover, colleagues do not require or presume to be
admired is the corporate culture of Germans (Passport to trade 2.0, 2014b) . Siemens observes the culture of
maintaining quality in their organization. Executives and employees in the organization are highly motivated
and work towards improving the quality standards. In addition to this, ownership and equity culture
prevalent in Siemens nurture a sense of belongingness among the employees of the organization. Thus,
Siemens’ culture and German culture are more or less same and quite well aligned.

Assessment Criteria 1.3 analyze the corporate cultural profile in an organization

Siemens is one of the most successful companies of Germany in the field of worldwide electronic market. It
attained such a respectable position by delivering sustainable value to their customers (Siemens, 2005) .
Siemens was formed in 1847 in Berlin by two men namely Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske.
It emerged as one of the most successful and highly reputed company of Germany. Siemens attained a
leading position with the invent of telegraph, dynamo and primary x-ray machine for the human beings
(Simens, 2008) .

Siemens is one of the premier corporations of Germany. It is one the giant corporate in the field of
electrochemical and electronics. Like any other German Export firms, Siemens AG also targeted U.S.
markets. Investments in research and development have been made by Siemens aggressively. It has a
remarkable position amongst companies of U.S. as the recipient of copyrights and donor to prominent
American universities and academies for co-operative research plans. It’s because of qualified German
public and training system which facilitated in essential human capital required by Siemens to be at leading
position in highly competitive electrochemical industry (Siemens, 2009) . As per the report of (IBEF, 2013) ,
Siemens is international participant in integrated circuit technology, engineering and electronics. A SMART
strategy was launched by the company in 2009 focussing on affordability, reliability timeliness and
maintenance free perspectives of the products. Additionally, the company transformed from being
workforce-centric from consumer-centric. The company claims of having highly contended employees.
Siemens stands as the largest technology company of the world. It has made many technological
modernizations in the areas of power, healthcare, engineering and substructure (Siemens, 2014b) . One of the

key strategic step taken by Siemens is the localization which is the key behind is success all over the world.
Strategic initiatives taken by Siemens and launching at appropriate time, emphasis on the workforce and
escalating sales channels leads to the prosperity of the company (SMC, 2015) .
Compliance with the internal and external rules and regulations of the company is required for the achieving
full social potential of corporate responsibility. Observing compliance with the law and regulation is seen as
the part of their self-image and corporate culture by Siemens. The company finds the need to outlook

acquiescence as a face of their corporate values and as fragment of a dynamic company and administrative
culture. This modification is buttressed by the Compliance Program of Siemens, which is alienated into the
following three mainstays: Prevent, Detect and Respond (Siemens, 2013c) .
Siemens is of the view that a company cannot reap the benefits of its outstanding strategies if they lack in
strong culture. The company therefore aims towards fostering ownership culture which encourage every
employee of the organization to strive towards long term success of the company (Siemens, 2014b) .
Siemens has a culture of strict adherence to company policies and values. The analysis also provided that the
company lays high emphasis on duly complying with its corporate social responsibility. In addition to this,

customers are the most important stakeholder in company’s culture. But there are inherent loopholes in the
company relating to leadership gaps and communication gaps.
Assessment Criteria 1.4 Discuss the impact of an organization’s corporate culture in achieving its objectives
An organization’s cultural climate has significant impact on the way it attains its objectives in the short-run
and long-run. Siemens aims at customer satisfaction, quality maintenance, strict policy adherence and
stakeholder development (Siemens, 2011) . As per the report of (Siemens, 2011) , the quality culture
prevailing in the organization pay emphasis on the customer as the key factor for the continuous success of
the organization. They are keen in incessant enhancement of their quality as a part of their top priority. A
satisfied customer is fundamental to success of any organization. He expects the quality for the price paid by
him. In Siemens, executives are aware of importance of maintaining quality and workforce are categorized
by their extraordinary mind-set of quality control. Managers of Siemens are of view that success of their
organization is reliant on their inventive fortes and exceptional quality of their merchandises and solutions.
In the report presented by (Siemens, 2014b) , the ownership culture is widespread in the organization which

is responsible for the sustainable business practices prevalent in the company. In Siemens, every individual
assumes that fulfilling his or her responsibility is imperative for the success of the company. Right from the
board of director to trainee embrace the culture to treat the company as of their own and act accordingly.
The company rely on strong culture for its long term success and believe that worker stakeholders perform
sensibly and are focused on to the long term when they unswervingly contribute in their company’s
People oriented approach adopted by Siemens nurtures diversity of experience and expertise and is reflected
in their success and they have versatile workforce which through their knowledge and expertise strive for

high productivity and profits. Siemens believe the company is obliged that it has employees that identify
with the organization and are highly committed towards the positive development of the company. The
equity culture is prevalent in organization which fosters the sense of belongingness and responsibility
towards the organization. Siemens believes this culture to be decisive for the long term success of the
company (Siemens, 2014a) .
Assessment Criteria 2.1evaluate the existing climate of an organization
Organizational climate is defined as the perception of an employee regarding an organization’s policies,
values, practices, behavior and environment to cite a few. A crucial relation lies between organizational
climate and individual’s performance and behavior (Srivastava, 2005) .
Siemens global business strategy of sustainability forms the core aspect of its internal and external
organizational climate. Siemens internal organizational climate is build of integrity in its business operations
as it follows legal and ethical code of conduct in dealing with internal as well as external business partners.

The company maintains ethical standards in its financial activities as well. Siemens have got employees
from different cultural background and the company manages diversity through imparting effective training
and development program, maintaining a non discriminative attitude towards employees from other nations
and providing equitable rights to both men and women (Siemens, 2013b) . The company discharges its social
responsibility towards its employees and society by following policy for environmental protection, health
management and occupational safety in its business activities (Siemens, 2013b) . To enhance employee’s
welfare in the organization Siemens extended the maternity leave period from 120 days to 180 days in 2011
and also adopted work from home policy for employees in 2013 where employees could work from home
once per week (Siemens, 2013b) . The company also provides its employees an opportunity to purchase
company’s stock. It spent around dollar 42.4 million in 2013 for training and development program to
enhance employee’s skill and maintain high performance culture. It also introduced leadership development
program to build future leaders for beating global challenges. Siemens was honored as among the Best
Companies in People Management practices in 2013 (Siemens, 2013b) .
Siemens external organizational climate framework is build of maintaining cordial relationship with its
various stakeholders. It provides superior customized service to its customers globally. It maintains amicable
relation with its investors by providing quarterly reports, annual reports and other relevant information
timely. In order to augment relation with suppliers globally it imparts training to enhance suppliers skills
free of cost. Siemens also maintains close contacts with the government, policy makers and other

administrators for its organization interests (Sustainability Report, n.d.) .
As per the report of (Simenes, 2007) , there are few companies in the world that boasts a long tradition and a
corporate culture. Siemens is of one them where management of the organization take due care of the social
responsibility while making any corporate decisions. Ever since the company was founded, it has always
been committed towards transferring its legacy to the next generation. The company’s culture exhibits itself
as a fellow of society and that they are modelling upcoming era not only with their inventions, but also with
their instruction and on-going edification. Since long, enduring discourses with inner and outer groups of
investors is inevitable part of corporate culture of the organization. Siemens corporate culture encompasses
unbiased radical posture, admiring liberty of outlook and regarding the encountered diversity in their
overseas undertakings as enrichment of their business as well as corporate culture.
Assessment Criteria 2.2 Recommend ways to improve corporate climate in an organization
Siemens, the engineering giant manufacturing organization in German faced a scandal in 2006 against
bribery. Employees in the organization were accused of paying bribes in millions of Euros to the officials in
order to gain contracts from large organizations and even government around the globe. Due to this business
irresponsibility and unethical act Siemens lost its creditability and goodwill in front of its investors,
employees and society as a whole. The organization was declared incompetent in handling business affairs.
As a response to the scandal and to maintain integrity Siemens appointed
external investigators from New

York law firm to carry out a rigorous internal audit in the firm. After the audit process several reasons
popped out which were held responsible for the scandal to take place such as a belligerent expansion
strategy adopted by the organization due to which employees began to perceive that bribery is a part of the
corporate climate to achieve tough performance targets and meet business objectives, complex
organizational structure and poor quality of accounting system (Graham & Gillespie, 2012) .
Poor leadership quality of the managers in Siemens was one of the greatest reasons for such scandal to take
place. In order to enhance the corporate climate Siemens can follow some of the recommendations as cited
(George Bradt, 2013) . Siemens need to change its corporate culture and environment due to its rigorous

expansion objectives in order to sustain its competitive advantage. Employees in the organization need to be
adaptable to organization’s cultural changes which can be developed by imparting effective training and
Employees should be clearly communicated regarding the company’s value system vital to achieve present
and future organization’s success where there should not be any place for unethical behavior. Employees
need to develop a responsible and positive attitude towards organization’s culture and enhance skills to
maintain good relations with the organization’s various stakeholders such as customers, investors to cite a
few. Above all the organization need to conduct effective learning and development session for leadership
development in the organization. Employees at all level need to possess a leadership quality to decide upon
right and wrong and to meet the business objectives responsibly and ethically.
Assessment Criteria 2.3 propose a framework of organizational values that meet the specific strategic and
operational needs of an organization
The strategic and operational objective of Siemens is to expand into the world of automation and digitization
after electrification (The Economists, 2014) . The company aims to reduce the existing bureaucracy in its
organization, develop and expand business portfolio and implement projects more efficiently (The
Economists, 2014) . In order to meet its objectives the organization has plans to undergo a change in
organizational structure with a reduction in number of group divisions and downsizing of employees

followed by redeployment of few staffs. Along with a change in organizational structure Siemens believes
that a change in organizational culture is essential for effective expansion and operation of business
portfolios (The Economists, 2014) .
A change in organizational culture would mean a need to introduce new competing organizational value
framework to meet the global challenges and change management (Cameron, 2006) . Leaders in the
organization need to undertake the responsibility of building value system and diffusing the same into the
employees of the firm. Signifying values forms a pillar for any strategic and operational decisions. Values
once framed, understood and followed speeds up the business activities and decisions (Madhavan, n.d.) .

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The ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine has not only affected the economy of these
two countries but also put severe negative consequences on other countries as well. In fact,
the whole world got affected by the crisis and inflationary impact of war-torn Russia and
Ukraine. The negative impact of covid-19 has already put the world backwards. In a situation
like this, when Russian President Vladimir Putin announces that he is going to attack
Ukraine, naturally that changes a lot. The cost of living standards has been recorded to jump
higher after the sudden intrusion of Covid-19 and now when Putin is at war against Ukraine’s
President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, that puts a lot of geopolitical pressure on the global
economy and its well-being. On completion of a year-long and still-going war of Conflict and
Russia’s annexation of Ukraine, the following section would specify a few of the areas that
got impacted on a high scale due to the war scene between these two neighbours.
The three essential sectors where the crisis has been noted to have the greatest impact include
Food, Energy sector and Migration and Governmental approaches to that.


The invasion of Russia on Ukrainian land creates a significant negative impact on food
prices. There is speculation that around 13.5 million tons of wheat and 16 million of maize
are stuck between the two countries, unable to move forward. The exportation route has now
been closed for over a year and sealing the border means that the trade would not be
accomplished. Without any trades, the supply for the food chain naturally gets under the
radar. Not only does the distribution of the supply chain management get impacted but
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and rising pollution caused by war actions results in
interruptions in planting seasons and agricultural culture. The World Food Program (WFP)
organises a calculation that shows how the cost of food has increased by 40% since 2020 and
it is expected to at least increase up to 10% of prices considering day-to-day products in
Ukraine and Russia due to the war effects.

Energy sector

Before the invention of Ukraine, Europe and China were recorded to import around 60% and
20% of Russia’s crude oil as Russia has been the second largest exporter and the third largest
producer of crude oil. The sudden attack of Russia on Ukraine pushes through the barriers to
rate the price of crude oil to such an extent that the buyers are showing a lack of interest to

buy from Russia. All of the prices have gone skyrocketing. This has a severe impact on the
supply to the global chain market, all to be blamed on the war actions.

Migration and Governance Issues

Ukrainians are leaving their country out of the threat of getting slaughtered and the issue of
migration is, therefore, a serious concern that NATO and the bordering countries of Ukraine
and Russia are reckoning with. Keeping aside the pressure on energy and food prices leading
to inequality and civil unrest, the governments of these countries also are in a highly unstable
position to take on decisions on where to keep these Ukrainian refugees. The situation is quite
messed up and things look to get worse with more days passing by.

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As the planet continues to warm, the effects of climate change become increasingly apparent, making the need for urgent action and transition to a more sustainable future more pressing than ever. The consequences of inaction are dire, including more frequent and severe weather events, loss of biodiversity, and global food and water shortages. This blog post will discuss the current state of climate change, explore its impacts, and highlight efforts to mitigate its consequences and embrace a more sustainable path.

Climate Change: A Global Concern

Climate change is a global issue, with average temperatures rising at an unprecedented rate due to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This warming trend has been primarily driven by human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial processes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has warned that we must limit global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels to avoid the most catastrophic consequences.

Impacts of Climate Change

The effects of climate change are already evident around the world and pose significant risks to ecosystems, human health, and economies. Climate change exacerbates extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, droughts, and heatwaves. These events can lead to loss of life, property damage, and significant economic costs.  As glaciers and polar ice caps melt, sea levels are rising, threatening coastal communities and infrastructure. The increased absorption of carbon dioxide by the oceans is causing them to become more acidic, leading to the decline of coral reefs and other marine ecosystems.  Warmer temperatures and changing weather patterns disrupt ecosystems, leading to the extinction of many species and the collapse of habitats. Climate change affects agricultural productivity, causing food shortages, and exacerbating water scarcity in many regions.

Efforts to Mitigate Climate Change

To address the challenges posed by climate change, global efforts have been focused on mitigation and adaptation strategies. Governments and businesses are working to reduce emissions through policies like carbon pricing, renewable energy incentives, and energy efficiency standards. The shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, is critical in limiting global warming. Planting trees and restoring forests help sequester carbon dioxide and protect ecosystems. The adoption of sustainable agricultural practices can help reduce emissions while ensuring food security. Strengthening infrastructure to withstand the impacts of climate change can reduce vulnerability to extreme weather events.

Embracing a Sustainable Future

As the effects of climate change become more apparent, it is essential to transition to a more sustainable future. This involves not only addressing the root causes of climate change but also building a world that prioritizes social and environmental well-being. Some key principles for a sustainable future can a  shift from a linear “take, make, dispose” economic model to one that reuses and recycles resources, minimizing waste and pollution. Ensuring that the benefits of sustainable development are shared fairly among all members of society. Protecting and preserving ecosystems, reducing pollution, and promoting biodiversity. Fostering understanding and action on climate change and sustainability through education and public awareness campaigns.

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In context of the marketing practices implemented in the operation domain of airline
businesses, this essay is making an insight into the role of sponsorship in case of the Emirates
Airline (EA). The basic concentration of this paper is to understand the role of sponsorship in
terms of operations in airlines as well as related airports. The idea is to explore and
comprehend the factors of sponsorship that are responsible to paving the road of success for
an organisation. The case of Emirates Airline (EA) has been selected for the critical analysis
of the success attained by the selected company in aviation marketing.

The Case
The ownership of Emirates Airline (EA) is in the hands of the Corporate Investors working
under the Government of Dubai, UAE. The official declaration of Emirates Airline (EA) in
their Annual Report of 2015 declares that it has been recognised as the largest airline
organisation in the entire Middle East, with an operating expansion of 3,300 flights/week
from Dubai International Airport. These flights are to 78 nations spread all over the world
(Emirates Airline, 2015). As reported by Frontier Economics (2015) since 2014, the flights of
Emirates Airline (EA) are increased by 29 airports in selected 28 cities of EU28. This
operation comprises of 700 flights operating per week in both the back and forth directions.
The success story of Emirates Airline (EA) in Europe appears very important in terms of

gaining developed route network, which is responsible for connecting many cities of the
world through Emirates Airline hub in Dubai.

In the words of the official declarations made by the The Emirates Group, the history of
Emirates comprises ‘incredible development’ and is ‘fascinating. The Emirates (2015, a)
refers the history of Emirates Airline (EA) back to 1980s. during the mid of this decade, the
Gulf Air started cutting back most of its services to channelised to Dubai. It is at this position,
that Emirates came into being in the month of March of 1985, that specifically was supported
and backed up by the royal family of Dubai. The collaboration was initiated with Pakistan
International Airlines offering a minimal of two airline aircrafts at wetlease. In order to gain


independent operative hold, the government subsidies were considered along with $10
million as the capital investment. These developments were initiated by Ahmed bin Saeed Al
Maktoum as the head and the current Chairperson of Emirates Airline (EA). Emirates (2015)
states that it hardly took any time for Emirates Airline (EA) to expand its destinations and
fleet. As such by October of the year 2008, Emirates made a huge shift of all its aviation
operations to the Terminal 3 of Dubai International Airport. The plans for its rapid
expansions and growth are still part of its success story and sustainability in the competitive
sky seems like a simple strategy to it.

The Success Story
Emirates (2015) depicts the trend of gaining regular success of Emirates against the
continuous regional instability and international economic volatility, as not miraculous, but
strategically well equipped. This report added the key combination of having the business
wisdom, along with savvy insight into the investment plans and perfect practical ambition. As
Emirates celebrates, the 25 th anniversary in the year 2015, the organisation marks its
remarkable sustainability and extensive growth with appropriate respect and recognition in
the international market. A critically investigated report by Mnisri (2010) notes that the secret
of success of Emirates is in its strong hold over the marketing strategy that emphasises in
terms of creating strong image of the brand and necessary awareness to be created

worldwide. The report of Mnisri (2010) adds that the role of the sponsors are very inevitable
in creating this success story. The management of sponsors sports clubs, as well as events in
the UAE and various esteem locations noted worldwide are the base for generating absolute
marketing strategy for the organisation. To this venture Emirates (2015 a) refers to the
continuous explosive growth of the organisation with continuous strive to offer best service
to its consumers in the aviation industry. The recent growth plan of Emirates Airline (EA)
comprises of –

Award winning cargo division in the international business periphery,
 Management of full-fledged destination, as well as leisure division, &
 IT developer for the Airline on an exclusive basis.

Role of Sponsorship: EA
The role of sponsorship initiated by any business is very significant and powerful in terms of
introducing its products, services or even itself a new market. The success story and the
extensive participation of Emirates Airline in sponsoring various events, especially those
related to sports, exemplifies the significance of sponsorship as an effective marketing tool
for creating brand image and awareness at large. In reference to the act of ‘extending brand
reach’, the Annual Report 2014 of Emirates Airline states,
“Our sponsorships are one of the most visible ways in which we connect people with
their passions”.

(Emirates Group, 2014, p. 11)

This is a declaration that confirms that Emirates Airline considered those elements for
sponsoring that are closely related to human passion, and its sports. The report adds that
Emirates in the current scenario is noted as one of the most popular brands that are involved
in sponsoring top level events of sports. Its partnership with selected football clubs in the
world, international meets in cricket, Formula 1, and other sports like golf, rugby,
horseracing, tennis, and Cup sailing of America, has actually successfully created the essence
of omnipresence of Emirates on a worldwide basis. The annual report of 2013-14, states that
a total of AED 850m has been already invested over the overall dnata business within the FY
of 2013-14, with the establishment of a new record that added the extra edge of being

recognised easily, for the airline division.

Sponsorship & Marketing
The interrelationship between sponsorship and marketing is related to the process of gaining
credible publicity in the market. These aspects are definitely interrelated, yet there is the need
to understand the distinction of publicity that is cost-effectives against the advertisement
((McChesney, 2008). Though both are tools of marketing, yet the sponsorship appears most
effective and lays serious impact of the brand image on the consumers as a whole. The
selection of sponsorship as a marketing tool by Emirates Airline has added enough essence
credibility to its brand awareness ventures, worldwide.

Analytical research led by Reed (2013) appreciates the sponsorship activities of Emirates
Airline in the sports related activities and various international sports events. However, there
is also the reference made towards the least possible participation of Emirates Airline in the
networking of the social media. The entire approach of Emirates Airline is in meeting the
mass population on a wide ranged spectrum rather than meeting them individually through
social media. Moreover, it is important to note that the less participation of Emirates Airline
in social media actually creates the image of being on hoardings for a positive cause rather
than being restricted to the PCs (McChesney, 2008).

Sports Sponsorship
The approach of considering sports sponsorship in the marketing domain, aims in meeting
wide ranged audience in an international ground. As noted by ACL (2011), the selection of
sports sponsorship by Emirates Airline is part of its strategic marketing, whereby the
organisation successful in getting the ideological image for its brand, on a wider scale. As
identified by Aaker and Erich (2000), on a global basis sports sponsorship appears more
effective than any other marketing tool as it is strong in creating the higher competitive
margin for the competitors. Nataraja and Al-Aali (2011) confirms this theoretical declaration
of Aaker and Erich as effective in reference to Emirates Airline. For Emirates Airline, this
margin has been achieved through its promotional mix of meeting targeted consumers and at
the same time in terms of creating brand image widely. It’s role of sponsoring in various

environmental activities and community services has actually made Emirates Airline one of
the most popular organisations in the world. However, Nataraja and Al-Aali (2011) still
emphasise that the omnipresent and strong brand image of Emirates Airline has been
established mainly through sports sponsorship, along with its equal conscious about the
comfort and profit of its employees as well as stakeholders in international business arena.

EA Aviation Marketing
The marketing sponsorship of the aviation business in sports domain by Emirates Airline has
been identified in diversified events. According to the list enlisted by Wilson (2015) sports
sponsorships led by that Emirates as an organisation stands immense. Sponsorship of


Emirates Airline is distinct in football as they were involved in World Cup, Arsenal in EPL,
Real Madrid in La Liga, Paris St Germain in Ligue Une, AC Milan in Series A, Humburger
FC in Bundesliga, and even Olympiacos in Super League. Banners and hoardings of Emirates
Airline are also very distinct in the Saudi League, in Asian Football Confederation, and New
York Cosmos. Sponsoring popular games like rugby in USA Rugby, Emirates offered stylish
eye-catching helmets and pads to the players. ATP World Tour, followed by US Open, World
Rankings, Rogers Cup and BNP Paribas Cup, are the tennis game series that are also
sponsored prominently by Emirates Airline. The marketing impression established by
Emirates Airline is also very tactful. As for instance, the relaxed, comfortable and luxurious

first class leather seats in the US open are the keys to make the spectator feel that the similar
comfort will also be made available in the Airline services.
Following the same thread, while sponsoring F1, the Emirates Airline even created a
specialised TV channel dedicated to F1 extensively. Innovation and creativity are thus
integral to the marketing of aviation business for Emirates Aviation. These are also seen in
the sponsorship activities with sports like horse racing, as in the Melbourne Cup; 18 events as
the Ryder Cup in Golf; being part of rugby union through the means of sponsoring the IPL,
official ICC match, as ICC World Cup as well as Twenty20 World Cup.
Marketing Strategies
By the implementation of right marketing strategies, by 2018, Emirates Airline has planned
to have more than 320 aircrafts and more than a count of 400 aircrafts by 2020. Considering
the growth rates of Emirates Airline these assessments appears very practical.

The success story of Emirates Airline is not limited to mere publicity. The activities of
publicity and advertisements through sponsorship are the means to show the world that the
EA is very active and strong in meeting all those rules that can add authenticity and
credibility to its services. As for instance, EA is very particular in supporting the IATA
(International Air Transport Association) norms, like (Emirates, 2012)-
 investment make for the use of improved technology in airlines and airports

effective means of managing operations at fleet & airports
 maintenance of efficient and hi-tech infrastructure for convenience
 approval of positive measures for economic development
These are grass root strategic implementations that make the entire programme of
sponsorship, a success without any major challenge. The keys of managing strategies for
successful sponsorships are all based on the practical declarations and operational
management of EA in the international market of aviation.

First Key: The very basic step is to have comprehensive and clear communicational
objectives, initiated by the organisation for respective brand. For EA, this is done through the
collaboration of responsive communication facilities maintained with the consumers. EA is
very particular about its visibility by appearing in various popular sports event, worldwide.
Its brand awareness and developmental associations with community services, says it all
(Nataraja and Al-Aali (2011).
Second Key: The second key is to remain proactive. The proactive initiation of EA is
managing sponsorship has been well acclaimed already as the company selected the domain

of sports to reach the ‘inner passion’ and every corner of human society through international


display of its participations (Emirates Group, 2014, p. 11). Considering sports as the ground
for developing sponsorship makes EA a common and popular brand, globally.
Third Key: The third key is to identify the gap to ‘fit in’ exceptionally. As marked by Aaker
and Erich (2000), the process of fitting exceptionally between a particular event and the
respective brand is though dicey, yet can offer instant success. EA is very bold and strong in
taking this initiation. Even after being a brand from aviation industry, its presence in different
kinds of sports events created room for its awareness among global population. It appears
strange, yet amazing the way Emirates gained hold over the act of ‘fitting in exceptionally’.
Fourth Key: The fourth key refers to own sponsorships, and for EA the huge back up is

Emirates Group itself. The logo in general is strong enough to offer an incorporated banner to
Fifth Key: The 5 th phase refers to the act of being analytical to the publicity opportunities. It
is here that EA refuse to remain active in the social media networking and concentrate more
in international sports events (Reed, 2013). The motive is simple. EA through Emirates, just
wanted to gain extensive recognition in public rather than meeting people individually on
personal grounds. The approach is open and popular.
Sixth Key: Sixth key is that of payoffs multiple sponsorship, which is very systematically
managed by the Emirates group. The financial security and meeting the challenges of
economic risks, are considered as a family matter by Emirates group and this EA gains the

opportunity to maintain payoffs through multiple sponsorship.
Seventh Key: The last key is to manage sponsorship actively and that is definitely gained by
the inhouse management services of Emirates Group.
However, apart from these key strategies, whereby Emirates Airline is much supported by
Emirates Group; there are individual initiations noted for gaining exclusive dominance over
the market and laying serious impact on the consumers. These keys are operational
management leadership and necessary alliances, wherever needed.

Management Leadership
The tactics and approaches of leadership for the attainment of a successful business have
attained innumerable definitions. According to Bass, the aspects of organisational leadership
in terms of accomplishing management practices needs to get structured in the form of “an


interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves a structuring or
restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of group members” (1990,
p. 19). Under the pressure of cross cultural management structures, there is the need to
consider an admixture of transformational attributes, sharing of power as well as authority
and responding to every issue in accordance to the current situation. In reference to Emirates
Airline, the core consideration is for phenomenal growth that is made possible by the
typically structured strong and very stable traits of leadership. As identified by Mnisri (2010)
the key note to the trend of gaining success for Emirates is its capability to manage a stable
continuity of the team of management. With a combination and team work of talented and
experienced executives, Emirates Airline is very successful in gaining mutual management

approaches in all its branches spread all over the world. Under the efficient guidelines of the
CEO, Sheik Ahmed Bin Saeed Al‑Maktoum, the leadership of Emirates Airline is open to
transformational, power-sharing, and situational combination of management structure. As
for instance, Emirate Airline in Dubai gets transformed into more contemporary style in
European nations. Being the fastest developing intercontinental carrier, the management of
EA is flexible enough in considering the cultural differences of all the six continents, yet
adding the developmental growth and sustainable services to the consumers.
Allied Sponsorship
It is the leadership trait of EA under the formulation of combining transformational, power-

sharing, and situational approaches that the company is successful enough in establishing its
allied sponsorships with much ease. The reports of Repucom (2015) declares that Emirates is
very specific in selecting its sponsorship partner and it is this keenness and preciseness that
the company earns a lot in gaining brand awareness in respective nations. As for instance,
Repucom states that in the Arsenal FC, Emirates chose to be with Arsenal and this dual
sponsorship appeared very beneficial to the company. The following graph shows the success
rate in this matter –

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Tourism today has grown significantly in both economic and
social importance. Travel and tourism is the largest industry in
the world on virtually any economic measure including : gross
output,Value added,capital investment,employment and tax
contributions. In 1992worldwide international arrivals had
reached 467 million. In 1992, the Industry’s gross output was
estimated to be $3.5 trillion,over 12% of all Consumer spending
worldwide international tourism receipts rose by 6-7% in 1992
to $278 billion. The travel and tourism industry is the World’s
largest employer, with almost 130 million jobs, or almost 7%Of
all employees. This industry is the world’s leading industrial
Contri-butor,producing over 6% of the world gross national
product, and accounting for capital investment in excess of
$422 billion in new faci-lities and equipment. In addition, it
contributes almost $400 billion in direct,indirect and personal
taxes each year.Tourism is the major source of income for a
significant number of count-ries including

: 2 :

Italy,Spain,Switzerland, and most Caribean countries.All
countries who have accorded priority to tourism development
have Succeeded in attracting the targeted number of toursists.
Spain attracts more than 40 million tourists a year.Singapore
with relatively no tourism potential draws 7 to 8 million tourists
per year. Walt Disney World has over 25 million visitors per

Tourism potential in India :

India potentially is the strongest tourism nation in the world.
India is Richly endowed with limitless scope for mountain
tourism,beach tourism,Historical tourism,cultural tourism,eco
tourism,(nature specific activities)And desert tourism.The
Himalays others unique prospects for the development of
skiing,skating,white water rafting,trekking and other adventure
tourism activities . The greatest adventure of all is scaling the
Himalayan peaks.
The Everest,Kunchenjunga and other mountain peaks offer
perennial Challenges for the mountaineering enthusiasts.

The Himalayas is unequalled by any other mountain range in
terms of Its sheer grandeur ,scenic beauty,variety of
flora,fauna,landscape and Other natural endowments. A
hundred million tourist visit the alps and Other mountain
ranges every year.In view of what the Himalayas has toOffer
and fact that they are located in the increasingly prosperous
Asia,It should be possible for us to draw a minium of 3 to 4
million tourists a Year to the Himalayas alone. In addition to its
natural advantages, it is Also home to some of the most
colourful people of india such as the hutias,sikkimese,Tibetians
and Nagas, each one of whom belongs to a Distinct race,each
with a different language,food,attire,music,dance,etc.also the
Buddhist monasteries,Hindu temples and the mystery
surrounding the Himalayas makes it extremely attractive to the
foreigntourist.The voletile Bay of Bengal and the serene
Arabian sea with their vast Coastlines have excellent beaches

unsoilt as yet by man. They provide Phenomenal scope for the
development of beach tourism.Nostalgia is big business in the
tourism industry. Our temples,forts,palace.

Apart from the tremendous potential for tourism, India has the
advent-age of low salaries and wages which will make it
possible for us to pro-vide personalized service to the visiting
tourists. Educated men and women can converse in English
effectively which will be a major advantage in promoting
international tourism.Development of Inbound Tourism in India
The increased international media coverage on India has
generated a lot Of Interest among foreign tourists. This interest
can be tapped by using the right mix of marketing and
providing the necessary services. Inter-national businessman
and professionals travelling to India have regis-tered a
significant growth in the last one year and this is bound to
increase in the coming months and years. These travelers can
be made to spend extra time in India on leisure and tourism
facilities.The economic reforms and liberalization makes it
possible for Indian And foreign companies to invest in the
development of infrastructure Including
aviation,power,roads,transport,coastal shipping etc.

But before going to take up the issue it is better to be
appointed with concept of Time Sharing Industry. As on Off-
spring of tourism would the concept is take up in the next

: 8 :

The Concept Time Sharing Industries mostly rotate around the
leisure time utilization better known as holiday utilization. A
Holiday is a period of relaxation,an excape from the daily
routine. Psychologists are of the opinion that holidays are a
vital component on one’s life, a chance for rest and
rejuvenation, rather than a luxury.Unfortunately, holidays are
expensive, and escalating costs make it diffi-Cult for more than
a few people to contemplate taking an annual holiday.
A lot of companies have come us to stand by the aspirants who
can Afford with megre income and ability. One of such
companies is Sterling.
Sterling has made the holiday affordable by introducing the
concept of

The different types of Time Sharing schemes are as follows :

: 12 :

  1. Property Timeshare

When an individual became a member of this scheme
he became a co-owner not only in the apartment he chose
but also the entire resort complex.
A portion of the price he paid goes towards a deposit for
operations And maintenance which is called ASCF
(Advance Subscription To-Wards Customer Facilities). This
means that his property will be Looked after year/ and
maintained in Prime condition for his use Year after at no
additional cost. The customer can also exchange it
With any other week,apartment or location which Sterling
owns Now or in the future.

  1. Flexxiweek Timeshare

: 13 :

This product was sold from March 1991 to 1992 with a
view of Combining the best of both the fixed and floating
week timeshares.
While retaining the flexibility of the floating week, the
Flexiweek Timeshare also provides access every alternate
year to a prime time

Vacation during a fixed preallotted week.

  1. Short Break timeshares

Inception :

This type of Timeshare was sold from May 1992 to
September 1993.

Concept :

The reason behind this product was that people who could
not afford to have a long holiday ( 6 nights/7 days ) could
have a shortone which was tailor-made for them.

: 14 :

Therefore the Short Break Timeshare of 2 nights/3 days
would be The right choice for them.

Target Group :

It was aimed at the Professionally busy individual, the
elderly and Children who are looking for a short break.

Projects :

Oety, Yercaud and Kodaikanal.

  1. Exchange

This timeshare is only for Season and Classic periods
(Season can be Exchanged with Season/Classic while Classic
can be exchanged with Classic only).

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Abstract 2
Table of Content 2
List of Figures and Tables 2

  1. Introduction 2
    1.1 Research Question 3
    1.2 Research Purpose 3
    1.3 Research Rationale 3
  2. Literature Review 4
    2.1 Strategic HR Management 4
    Common Global Practices, SHRM at IBM: A Case Study 4
    2.2 Theory to Praxis 4
    SHRM Theories, Implementation at IBM 4
    2.3 Current Issues 4
    Recruitment, Training & Motivation, and Retention 4
  3. Methodology 4
    3.1 Research Philosophy 4
    3.2 Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches 4
  4. Selected Research Methodology 4
    4.1 Research Approach 4
    4.2 Sampling 4
    4.3 Data Collection 4
  5. Findings and Analysis 4
    5.1 SHRM Approaches at IBM 4
    5.2 Recruitment and Training at IBM 4
    5.3 Motivation and Retention 4
    5.4 Analytical Overview 4
  6. Conclusion and Recommendations 4
    References 8

    Appendices 9

Table of Content

List of Figures and Tables

  1. Introduction

According to the Annual Report 2015 of IBM, the current strategic imperative revenue mix
of the company, against the market get noted as follows –
Figure 1 IBM: Strategic Imperative Growth

Source: IBM (2015)

It has been clearly marked in the current competitive market scenario, IBM has considered its
strategic imperatives as significant elements to its management process. Its expansion in the
fields of analytics, cloud, mobile, security, and social context remains successful in gaining
27% of its total revenue of $25 billion in the year 2014. With the establishment of 3,000
patents in 2014, the company acknowledges that it is the capacity and efficiency of its human
resource (HR) that integrated technology in accordance to the business proceedings the
clients, and adding success to the company on a worldwide basis.
Considering developmental approaches of IBM as the core subject, this research is offering a
research on the ways the Human Resources are recruited, generated, maintained, and further

retained in IBM. The approach is in gaining information about the strategic management
formulations as considered by IBM in being able remain competitive in the global market.

For this purpose the official declarations of IBM, like Annual reports and news articles will
be considered. Further analytical overview will include various theories, peer-reviewed
journal articles, and literary sources for the understanding of Strategic Human Resource
Management, with close study of the practices in IBM.

1.1 Research Question
In the domain of HRM, why IBM can be idealised by a company, to gain knowledge about
sustainability and growth in the current global market?

1.2 Research Purpose
The core purpose of this report is to analyse the SHRM of IBM, in order to gain necessary
knowledge about the implementation of strategic theories and practices in the HR domain for
organisational success. As under the intensive pressure of globalisation, the companies are
facing enormous hurdles in recruiting the right employees, training and motivating them, and
get most strenuous in retaining valued employees; this research aims to offer the tips and
tricks of IBM in resolving these issues in particular.

1.3 Research Rationale
As against many competitive software companies, like Accenture, Hewlett-Packard, Apple,
etc., IBM with 379,592 employees, excels itself in the process of recruiting, training &
motivating, and retaining employees for organisational growth and long term sustainability in
the market (IBM, 2014). Its achievements and growth makes it one of the most best place for
generating a good career for an employee (IBM, 2015 a). This is the reason that IBM has
been selected here, as an ideal company to understand its HR strategic management for the
upliftment of those companies that still strive to gain more potentiality in global market.

  1. Literature Review
    2.1 Strategic HR Management

Common Global Practices, SHRM at IBM: A Case Study
2.2 Theory to Praxis
SHRM Theories, Implementation at IBM
2.3 Current Issues
Recruitment, Training & Motivation, and Retention

  1. Methodology
    3.1 Research Philosophy
    3.2 Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
  2. Selected Research Methodology
    4.1 Research Approach
    4.2 Sampling
    4.3 Data Collection
  3. Findings and Analysis
    5.1 SHRM Approaches at IBM
    5.2 Recruitment and Training at IBM
    5.3 Motivation and Retention
    5.4 Analytical Overview
  4. Conclusion and Recommendations


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