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Drug & pharmaceutical industry plays a vital role in the health care of the any country.Rapid growth of this industry requires further attention because even after 50 years of independence, India, with around 15 percent of the World population, accounts for lessthan 2 percent of the drug production in the world. Annual per capita consumption of medicine in India is less than 2% of that in Japan. Health care expense in India is adismal 0.8 percent of GDP compared with 12.4 percent in U.S.A. 6.5% in Japan and 6.2 percent in the U.K, despite higher incidence of disease and malnutrition. The povertyand disease in India on one hand calls for higher standard of healthcare and pharmaceuticals production and on the other, stultifies the growth of industry due to poor affordability of an average Indian. Drug & Pharmaceutical industry has therefore,encountered a tough situation which most industry have always found difficult,to provide abundant quantity of quality products at low prices.
The Indian Pharmaceutical industry, valued at $46.2 billion has been witnessingattractive growth rate of 15% to 20% consistently over the past decade. This growthwas build by India’s large population, increasing allocation of income to healthcarespending and exports. Exports which currently accounts for 20% of the productionvalue has grown by a compound annual growth rate of 34% in the past few years due tocompetitive price advantages from India’s low labor and other input cost.
The Indian market for pharmaceutical products stands at an enormous $58.8 billion.The big 10 companies account for over 30% of that, take away 45 marketer and averagesales don’t even come any where near the $2.5 million marks, that’s how fragmented itsis some 50,000 brands from over 20,00 companies growing fast enough to embarrassrainy day mushrooms and enough diseases to savage Indian population all several times over and turn Dr. Dolittle into Dr. Don’t care..
MSD Pharmaceuticals Private Limited is an affiliate of Merck & Co. Inc., USA. (also known as Merck Sharp &Dohme or MSD in many parts of the world), a global research-driven pharmaceutical company dedicated to putting patients first. Established in 1891, Merck Sharp &Dohme currently discovers, develops, manufactures and markets vaccines and medicines to address unmet medical needs.
With global headquarters in New Jersey, USA, Merck & Co. Inc. 2007 sales stood at US $24.2 billion with 59,800 employees and product sales spanning 140 countries worldwide. The Merck Manufacturing Division employs more than 12, 000 people at locations in 25 countries.
UNPARALLELED SCIENTIFIC EXCELLENCE
Merck & Co. Inc., USA success has always been based on innovation and scientific research. A commitment to excellence in research is at the heart of its philosophy and strategy. Since the founding of its research laboratories over 70 years ago, Merck & Co. Inc. has developed more than 100 new medicines and vaccines.
The Merck Research Laboratories employs approximately 9,500 people at sites in the United States, Canada, Europe and Asia. In 2007 Merck & Co. Inc. invested US $4.9 billion in R&D.
Currently Merck’s priority areas of focus in therapeutic research include Alzheimer’s disease, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease,
diabetes, novel vaccines obesity, oncology, pain, and sleep disorders. These therapeutic areas were carefully chosen based on a set of criteria including unmet medical needs, scientific opportunity and commercial opportunity. Within these therapeutic areas, Merck & Co. Inc. has committed resources to achieve research breadth and depth and to develop best-in-class targeted and differentiated products that are valued highly by patients, payers and physicians.
MSD operates in India via three separate legal entities MSD Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Organon India Limited and Fulford India Limited.
Since its existence in India, the company has moved quickly in laying the foundation for a successful business in India; a business that is differentiated by its focus on putting patients first and launching innovative products those are relevant to India. MSD India currently operates in various therapeutic areas including Metabolics, Cardiovascular, Vaccines, Critical Care, Immunology, Virology, Oncology, Women’s health, Dermatology, Respiratory, Virology, Muskulotology and Primary Care.
Post integration with Schering-Plough, the new MSD India offers a much stronger, diversified and higher value product portfolio of over 75 brands in various therapeutic areas, of which 13 are already category leading products.
Our world-class prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines bring relief to millions of people in the region. Vaccines are one of the greatest public health success stories of the 20th century, and Merck has played its part in that story. We are one of a few companies who remain dedicated to the complex business of researching and producing vaccines.
We are committed to improving communities’ access to healthcare through our products and solutions. Our direct contact with healthcare providers and institutions ensures that widest reach of and access to put industry-leading products.
Developing, discovering and bringing breakthrough medicines to find treatments for some of the most vexing medical problems in our times forms the core philosophy of MSD. MSD has been relentlessly working to transform cutting edge sciences into innovative medicines and groundbreaking medical solutions in order to aid clinicians caring for critically ill patients, thereby helping in reducing mortality in ICU.
EVALON® TABLET/ FORTE AND CREAM
MULTILOAD CU 375®
PREGCOLOR CARD GOLD®
| China, India, South Korea, Russia, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey are famously called the emerging frontiers and an ambitious target of 13% has been set by 2013.
The strategy for each country is uniquely different. MSD has identified diabetes, cardio-metabolic, cancer and osteoporosis as key areas of research and spends $8 billion each year.
Merck will continue to adopt a different pricing system to make their medicine more accessible to the Indian consumer. It currently sells Januvia, the diabetic drug, at a fraction of the cost that it is sold for in the US market
MSD in India and Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (Sun Pharma) announced formation of an India-specific strategic partnership agreement under which Sun Pharma will have the right to market, promote and distribute MSD’s diabetes products, sitagliptin and sitagliptin plus metformin, under different brand names in India.
Both partners complement each other’s strengths in this arrangement. While MSD in India brings the scientific excellence and market success of the compound to the partnership, Sun Pharma brings its proven success and expertise in the marketing of drugs in the relevant therapeutic areas across India. This is yet another testimonial to MSD’s commitment towards the patients of India and towards addressing high disease burdens of chronic diseases like type 2
Diabetes, while providing broader access of our first in class and best in class drugs in the country.”
Sun Pharma enjoys a strong relationship with the physician community such as diabetologists, endocrinologists and consulting physicians treating patients with diabetes across India. Through this partnership, the reach of sitagliptin and sitagliptin plus metformin will be enhanced amongst doctors & patients in India, helping them efficaciously manage the disease.”
A REVIEW OF MARKETING STRATEGIES WORK BY DIFFERENT PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES
The current shift in the marketing strategy is work by multinational pharmaceutical Companies .It is now high-end (rather than adaptive) development that is being carried out by leading companies. And, increasingly, other companies are finding themselves competing against, or working with, new innovation-based companies. My study focuses on the processes and outcomes of globally distributed pharmaceutical companies. This article will present the changing marketing strategies when a pharma company shift from Acute base to Chronic therapy base. This research paper will also give an insight about shift in supply chain process and customer and end-customer perception which is the base of formulation of different marketing strategies.
The pharmaceutical industry is the world’s largest industry due to worldwide revenues of approximately US$2.8 trillion. Pharma industry has seeb major changes in the recent years that place new demands on payers, providers and manufacturers. Customers now demand the same choice and convenience from pharma industry that they find in other segment.
Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is poised for high consistent growth over the next few years, driven by a multitude of factors. Top Indian Companies like Ranbaxy, DRL CIPLA and Dabur have already established their presence.
The pharmaceutical industry is a knowledge driven industry and is heavily dependent on Research and Development for new products and growth. However, basic research (discovering new molecules) is a time consuming and expensive process and is thus, dominated by large global multinationals.
Indian companies have only recently entered the area. The Indian pharmaceutical industry came into existence in 1901, when Bengal Chemical & Pharmaceutical Company started its maiden operation in Calcutta. The next few decades saw the pharmaceutical industry moving through several phases, largely in accordance with
(doctor) is responsible . Essentially, the end-user (patient) consumes a product and pays the cost .
Use of medical representatives for marketing products to physicians and to exert some influence over others in the hierarchy of decision makers has been a time-tested tradition. Typically, sales force expense comprises an estimated 15 percent to 20 percent of annual product revenues, the largest line item on the balance sheet. Despite this other expense, the industry is still plagued with some very serious strategic and operational level issues.
2.1 From organizational perspective the most prominent performance related issues are enlisted below:
a) .Increased competition and shortened window of opportunity.
b). Low level of customer knowledge (Doctors, Retailers, Wholesalers).
c). Poor customer acquisition, development and retention strategies
d). Varying customer perception.
e). The number and the quality of medical representatives
d). Very high territory development costs.
f). High training and re-training costs of sales personnel.
g).. Very high attrition rate of the sales personnel.
h). Busy doctors giving less time for sales calls.
i). Poor territory knowledge in terms of business value at medical representative level .
j). Unclear value of prescription from each doctor in the list of each sales person.
k). Unknown value of revenue from each retailer in the territory
l). Virtually no mechanism of sales forecasting from field sales level, leading to huge deviations
m). Absence of analysis on the amount of time invested on profitable and not-so-profitable customers and lack of time-share planning towards developing customer base for future markets
n). Manual and cumbersome administrative systems and processes designed
which don’t facilitate optimal efficiency levels in sales teams
And many more…………
Patents are a vital aspect of the global pharma industry. Patent protection is essential to spur basic R&D and make it commercially viable. But, only the developed nations endorse product patents. Most third world countries have patent laws but enforcement is totally lax. Some developing nations like India, Egypt and Argentina allow only process patent registration.
2.3 New Drug Approval (NDA)
Prior to launching its products in any country, a pharma company undertakes patent registration to protect its own interests. To protect the interests of the consumers, it is necessary that the product be approved by the drug authorities in that country. Mostly the process for seeking approval is initiated alongside the patent registration process.
Due to pressure from the developed countries, across the world uniformity in patent laws is being implemented under WTO (World Trade Organization – earlier GATT i.e. General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade). Presently, different countries have different patent types and life period. WTO has decided upon a product patent life of 20 years in all countries.
2.5 RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT (R&D)
The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by heavy R&D expenditure. It is only the large pharmaceutical companies who can allocate significant resources for R&D to introduce new products. As the products are an outcome of significant R&D expenditures incurred by these companies, they have their products patented. The patent allows the companies concerned to wield immense pricing power for their new products.
2.6 THE COMPETITION
The level of competition in very high in Acute segment on day to day basis
however the degree of competition in not as much as high in Chronic therapy area on day to day basis
As doctor has to prescribe drug for a long time in chronic cases and patient is suppose to consume it without any change of brand. While in acute cases doctor is changing brands on day to day basis.
3.Pharmaceutical Company Business Strategies
What’s the secret behind these successes? For one, the company operates in niche formulations (chronic) segments such as psychiatry, cardiovascular, gastroentology and neurology. While most of the top Indian companies have focused on antibiotics and anti– infectives (acute), Sun Pharma focused on therapeutic areas such as depression, hypertension and cancer. The company has introduced the entire range of products and has gained leadership position in each of these areas. Being a specialty company insulates Sun Pharma from the industry growth. The first quarter results for FY02 explain this to some extent. While the industry was affected to a large extent by a slowdown in the domestic formulations market, Sun Pharma logged a growth of 26% in revenues. Over the years Sun has also used the strategy of acquisitions and mergers to grow quickly. It acquired Knoll Pharma’s bulk drug facility, Gujarat Lyka Organics, 51.5% in M. J. Pharma, merged TamilNadu Dadha Pharma & Milmet Labs and acquired Natco’s brands. Post Merger with TamilNadu Dadha Pharma the company gained presence in gynecology and oncology segments.
One of the constants of pharmaceutical company strategy over the past decade has beenincreasing scale. Only by growing larger are companies able to afford the considerable costs of drug development and distribution.
Within this broad approach at least two business models are discernable:
(i) Super Core Model involving the search for, and distribution of a small number of drugs from Chronic Threapy Area that achieve substantial global sales. The success of this model depends on achieving large returns from a small number of drugs in order to pay for the high cost of the drug discovery and development process for a large number of patients. Total revenues are highly dependant on sales from a small number of drugs.
Core Model in which a larger number of drugs from Acute Threapy Area are marketed to big diversified markets. The advantage of this model is that its success is not dependant on sales of a small number of drugs.
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India has world’s third largest higher secondary education system with a number of institutions. More and more students are going for higher education these days. The result gets reflected on the number of students enrolling for higher education. The number of institutions is also increasing day by day. India has got following numbers of educational institutions (as on December 31, 2007):
|Institution||Qty (in no.)|
|Institutions established through State Legislation||5|
|Institutes of National Importance||31|
Educational management, the name implies, operates in the educational organizations. There is no defining definition of educational management because its development has drawn heavily on several disciplines like economics, political science and sociology. Most of the definitions of educational management which have been offered by write are partial because they reflect the particular sense of their authors.
“Educational management is the theory and practice of the organization and administration of existing educational establishments and systems.”
“Management implies an orderly way of thinking. It describes in operator terms what is to be done, how it is to be done and how we know when have done. Management is not a mystique. It is a method of operation. Go management should result in an orderly integration of education and society “School management, as a body of educational doctrines, comprises a number of principles and precepts relating primarily to the technique of classroom procedure and derives largely from the practice of successful teachers. The writers in the field have interpreted these principles and precepts in various ways, usually with reference to longer and more fundamental principles of psychology, sociology and ethics.”
Marketing Strategy & Plan on itee
The marketing strategy & Plan on itee is, they produce hand bill and lip late around the school and college premises and also Poster, Banner, Hooding are there. This institute advertisement through weekly paper or magazine like Karmakhetra, Jibika Dishari, Karmasangsthan etc. The itee also providing free classes for the new students and give theme free books for advertising. They are advertising through internet and their website.
Branch Wise Student Growth 2011 & 12
Student Like on itee
During my survey, I have found that most of the student is satisfied with the institution. They feel that the institution is preparing them for the various competitive examinations, and a number of them have successfully passed in there examination.
NUMBER OF STUDENT IN ALL COURSES 2011 & 12
|AMIE EXAM||SEMESTER STUDY
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In modern business, environment organizations are striving hard to meet customer expectations (Lai et al. 2014). These customer expectations are supercilious in nature thus organizations are forced to be quick to respond. Being global is the key to organizational growth especially for the aviation industry. For supporting this global approach in a sustainable manner and gain leadership position, it is a mandate for airline companies to outshine satisfaction level of customers by providing them with quality services, which their competitors fail to.
In airline industry, which is essentially a service business format, quality of customer service perceived and provided drives customer satisfaction (Chen & Chang 2005). Thus, companies need to be exceptional in this area for gaining competitive advantage. Airline companies continually design innovative services for not only meeting customer expectation but also achieve organizational goals.
Etihad Airways, founded in the year 2003 by Royal (Amiri) Decree. Its headquarters are in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (Bloomberg Businessweek 2015). Since then the airways is striving to gain a leadership position within air transport industry not only in the Middle East but in international arena too (Etihad 2015). Etihad Airways has marked a strong presence in countries from areas like Middle East, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America thereby connecting a larger part of the world within a short span of 12 years (Bloomberg Businessweek 2015).
Along with core-air transportation service, Etihad also offers ground services, especially to those availing limousine and lounges. These services are made available in selected cities namely London, Abu Dhabi, Manchester, Frankfurt, Paris, Dublin, and Washington, D.C (Bloomberg Businessweek 2015). Further Etihad also offers training and development for local people categorized as Emiratis through programs related to cadet pilots, technical engineering, and management development. Global Traveller Awards have accredited Etihad with a number of awards in the year 2014 in categories related to Airline of the Year, Best Airline in the Middle East and Best Airport Staff / Gate Agents (Etihad Airways 2014). In 2014 approximately 14.3 million Revenue passengers availed the air transport services by Etihad Airways (Etihad Airways 2014).
For the purpose of this research, understanding the concepts of decision making in a consumer based on services quality was the most important aspect.. The impact of consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction level is understood decisions taken by the same through purchase decision-making process (Kardes et al. 2010).
The decision making process in a consumer as considered for this research is the Engel-Blackwell-Miniard Model (Masterson and Pickton, 2014). Selection of this model is considered as it concentrates more in an amalgamated ways of understanding service related factors that influence the decision-making approach in a consumer. The basic points analysed in a consumer, by this model are – need recognition, search of information (internally & externally), evaluation of alternatives, purchase, post purchase reflection and divestment (Masterson and Pickton, 2014).
In terms of service quality, a number of models have been proposed for measuring services quality, out of which SERVQUAL is the most crucial and comprehensive one. In accordance to Zeithaml et al. (2010) SERVQUAL is a complete model that aids in identification and analysis of varied perspectives of service provider and customer about a particular service and its quality. With the help of this model, organizations can efficiently categorize varied gaps that are present in service delivery process which affects customer satisfaction. Based on the analysis and identification of unique requirements measures can be taken accordingly to overcome gaps and thereby augment service quality levels. As per Seth et al. (2005) it is one of the most suitable models for determining service quality as it helps in determining the discrepancies present in customer service expectations and that provided by organizations.
The research methodology was designed using an amalgamation of both qualitative and quantitative approaches, which implies usage of mixed method. As the method supports in undertaking a holistic research and thus has been adopted (Martins & Martins 2014). The data get collected through both primary and secondary sources for supporting achievement of research objectives. For making the study more comprehensive, primary data has been collected through 100 customers from Etihad and 100 from Emirates, making 200 in total. Moreover, 8 managers (4 from each company) from customer service department are contact for interviews of the related companies. Secondary data was collected from varied reliable and authentic published sources (Collis & Hussey, 2014).
In modern day environment, airline companies are striving to not only retain their existing customers but also attract new ones to gain sustainable business amidst intense competitive pressures. With new players entering the industry and existing competitors resorting to innovative practices, the only option left with companies like Etihad is to endow customers with satisfaction. Today, partially due to augmentation in technology and partially due to emergence of globalization the opportunities for satisfying customers have also increased.
Irrespective of this fact, due to intense competitive pressures from companies like Emirates and other constraints, Etihad is unable to benefit from its customer service strategies adopted to provide customer satisfaction. Consumer behaviour too is highly dynamic which further aggravates the problem for Etihad. Thus, this research paper attempts not only to understand the varied customer satisfaction related issues faced by Etihad and the remedial strategies used by the company in comparison to its competitors but also provide for measures through which customer satisfaction can be augmented.
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The main objectives of the study are as follows:
1) To study the financial position of the company.
2) To analyse the financial stability and overall performance of SAIL in general.
3) To analyse and interpret the trends as revealed by various ratios of the company in particular.
4) To analyse the profitability & solvency position of the unit with the existing tools of financial analysis.
5) To study the changes in the assests,liabilities structure of the company during the period of study.
For the detailed analysis of the data, I have adopted different Costing and Accounting procedures and methods like- Cost Sheet, Cash Flow Statement, Ratio Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Discounting Cash Flow technique(NPV Method). SWOT Analysis was carried out on the financial aspects of the SME sector of the Indian Steel Industry.
For expressing various results into graphs and charts, spread-sheet software MS EXCEL was used.
Finance is one of the most primary requisites of a business and the modern management obviously depends largely on the efficient management of finance. Financial statements are prepared mainly for decision making.
They play a dominant role in setting the frame work of managerial decisions. The finance manager has to adhere to 5 R’s with regard to money. The right quantity of money for liquidity consideration of right quality. Whether owned or borrowed funds, at the right time to preserve solvency from the right sources and at the right cost of capital.
The term financial analysis also known as “analysis & interpretation of financial statements”refers to the process of determing financial strength and weaknesses of the firm
By establishing strategic relationship between the items of the balance sheet ,profit & loss account and other operative data.
The purpose of financial analysis is to diagnose the information contained in financial statements so as to judge the profitability and financial soundness of the firm.
Limitations of the study :
The analysis & interpretation are based on secondary data contained in the published annual reports of SAIL for the study period.
SOURCES OF DATA :
Sources of date are collected from annual reports of the company
From the year 2010-11 & 2011-12.
METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS :
The data collected were edited,classified & tabulated for analysis.
The analytical tools used in this study are :
Analytical tools applied :
1) Comparative Statement
2) Common Size Statement
3) Trend percentage
4) Ratio Analysis
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION :
Financial statement is an organized collection of data according to logical and consistent accounting procedures.Its purposes to convery an understanding of some financial aspects of a business firm. It may show a position at a moment of time,as in the case of a balance sheet,or may reveal a series of activities over a given period of time, as in the case of a Income statement.Thus the “Financial Statements” refers to two basic statements : (i) the Income statement & (II) Balnace Sheet.
Ratio Analysis of the Cost Statement of the production process of hot metal (without using sinter):
1) RAW MATERIAL COST: WORK COST=13,695:15,190=1:1.1
2) IRON ORE COST: WORK COST=4,420: 15,190=1:3.4
3) COKE COST: WORK COST=8,800:15,190=1:1.7
4) IRON ORE: COKE=4,420: 8,800=1:2
5) IRON ORE: COKE: FLUX=4,420:8,800:475=9.3:18.5:1
6) FLUX COST: WORK COST=475:15,190=132
7) IRON ORE COST: TOTAL RAW MATERIAL COST=4,420:13,695=1:3
8) COKE COST: TOTAL RAW MATERIAL COST=8,800: 13,695=1:1.6
9) FLUX COST: TOTAL RAW MATERIAL COST=475: 13,695=1:29
10) LIMESTONE: DOLOMITE: QUARTZ=220:225:30=7.3:7.5:1
11) LABOUR COST: WORK COST=500:15,190=1:30
12) DIRECT LABOUR: INDIRECT LABOUR=400:100=4:1
13) UTILITY COST: WORK COST=535:15,190=1:28
14) POWER: WATER=525:10=52.5:1
15) OVERHEAD: WORK COST=100:15,190=1:152
16) STORES & CONSUMABLES: WORK COST=500:15,190=1:30
17) PRIME COST (MATERIAL+DIR. LABOUR): WORK COST=(13,695+400):15,190=14,695:15,190=1:1.034
18) PBDIT: WORK COST=3,060:15,190=1:5
Ratio Analysis of the Cost Statement of the production process of hot metal (WITH SINTER 40 %):
1) RAW MATERIAL COST: WORK COST=12,194:13,389=1:1.1
2) IRON ORE COST: WORK COST=2,629: 13,389=1:5
3) COKE COST: WORK COST=8,250: 13,389=1:1.6
4) IRON ORE:COKE=2,629: 8,250=1:3.14
5) IRON ORE:COKE: FLUX=2,629: 8,250:280=9.4:29.5:1
6) FLUX COST: WORK COST=280: 13,389=1:48
7) IRON ORE COST: TOTAL RAW MATERIAL COST=2,629:12,194=1:4.6
8) COKE COST: TOTAL RAW MATERIAL COST=8,250: 12,194=1:1.5
9) FLUX COST: TOTAL RAW MATERIAL COST=280: 12,194=1:44
10) LIMESTONE: DOLOMITE: QUARTZ=110:150:20=5.5:7.5:1
11) LABOUR COST: WORK COST=350:13,389=1:38
12) DIRECT LABOUR: INDIRECT LABOUR=150:200=3:4
13) UTILITY COST: WORK COST=535: 13,389=1:25
14) POWER: WATER=525:10=52.5:1
15) OVERHEAD: WORK COST=150: 13,389=1:89
16) STORES & CONSUMABLES: WORK COST=300: 13,389=1:45
17) PRIME COST (MATERIAL+DIR. LABOUR):WORK COST=(12,194+150): 13,389=12,344:
18) PBDIT: WORK COST= 4,861: 13,389=1:2.75
Financial ratio analysis groups the rations into categories that tell us about the different facets
Of a companies financial state of affairs .Some of the categories of ratios described below :
1) Liquidity Ratios : Give a picture of companies short term financial situation or solvency.
2) Turnover Ratios : show how efficient a companies operations and how well it is using its assets.
3) Profitability ratios : show the quantum of debt of companies capital structure.
Liquidity Ratios : 1) Current Ratio 2) liquid ratio 3) Net working capital ratio.
1) Current Raio = CURRENT ASSESTS/CURRENT LIABILITIES
An Ideal solvency ratio is 2. The ratio of 2 is considered as a safe margin of Solvency due to the fact that if current assests are reduced to half i.e. 1 instead of 2, then also the creditors will be able to get their payments in full.
2) Liquid Ratio : Quick Ratio= Total Quick Assest/Total current liabilities
Quick Assets = Total current Assest- Inventory.
The liquid ratio denotes the concern had achieved more than the ideal ratio of 1:1.
3) NET WORKING CAPITAL RATIO :
NET WORKING CAPITAL /CAPITAL EMPLOYED.
Net working capital measures the firm’s potential reserve of funds. It can be related to NET ASSETS. This ratio represents the availability of working capital in realtion with Capital employed.
4) TURNOVER RATIO : i) Fixed Assets turnover ratio ii) Working capital turnover ratio
iii) Debtors Turnover Ratio iv) Stock Turnover ratio.
i) Fixed Assets Turnover ratio : Net Sales/Net Fixed Assets
Higher the ratio is the better. A high ratio Indicates your business has less money tied up in fixed assets for each dollar of sales revenue.
ii) Working capital turnover ratio : NET SALES /NET WORKING CAPITAL:
iii) Debtors Turnover ratio : a) Debtors turnover ratio b) Debt collection Period
DTR = CREDIT SALES/AVERAGE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
Average accounts receivable = Opening balance of debtors+ Closing balance of debtors/2
In SAIL, There has been increase in the DTR, which shows the efficiency of collection deptt.
iv) Stock Turnover Ratio = Net Sales/Average Inventory
Average Inventory= Opening stock of Inventory + Closing Stock of Inventory/2
Profitability Ratio : 1) Return on Investment 2) Return on Shareholder’s funds.
4) Return on total assets 4) Earning per share (EPS) 5) Net Profit Ratio 6) Operating ratio
1) Payout ratio 7) Dividend yield ratio
Return on Investment = Operating Profit/Capital EmployedX100
The term operating profit means “Profit before interest & Tax” and Capital employed means sumtotal of long terms funds employed in the business.
i.e. Share capital + Reserves & surplus + long term loans-(non business assets + fictitious assets)
Return on Shareholder’s funds : Net profit after Interest and Tax/Shareholder’s fund X100
Return on Total Assets = Net Profit after TAX/Total Assets X100
Earning per Equity Share = Net Profit after tax/No. of Equity sharesX100
NET PROFIT RATIO = Net Operating Profit/Net Sales X100
Operating Ratio = Operating Cost /Net SalesX100
Direct Material Cost to sales = Direct Materials/Net Sales X100
PAY OUT RATIO = Dividend per Equity Share/Earning per Equity Share X100
DIVIDEND YIELD RATIO = Divident per share/Market price per share X100
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Nestle: Nestle is a market leader and a Multinational Company in Food and Beverage
Segment. The Vision Statement is “To be a leading, competitive, Nutrition, Health and
Wellness Company delivering improved shareholder value by being a preferred
corporate citizen, preferred employer, and preferred supplier selling preferred
products”. Though foodand drink is a basis necessity for human life, 21st century has
witnessed many changes in theway we consume and treat food. To cater to these
changes it is of prime importance for Nestleto remain innovative not only in terms of
product offering but also a strong management that is creative and innovative in
Samsung: Samsung started as a trading company and diversified into multiple
businesses likeElectronics, Construction, and Insurances etc. Samsung Electronics is
the largest informationtechnology company as per 2012 revenue. The Mission
Statement focused on building itsbrand and become a creative leader in new market.
Samsung has witnessed a very largenumber of innovations in last decade and was able
to remain the leader mainly due to its focuson innovation.
Apple: Apple is into the business of designing, developing and selling consumer electronics.Apple is world’s largest technology company by total asset. Apples products have created anew dimension in terms of how the personal computer or a mobile phone has been used.Apple’s continuous strive for innovation has made Apple the most innovative company.
Innovative management practice is the only way an organisation can be or remain creativeand innovative. The culture of innovation is driven by the organisation system and peoplewho are part of it. So it is very important for any organisation to have a creative andinnovative management. Apple’s creative and innovative management has transformed, in itsdomain of Technology Company, for a pc manufacturer to a brand of desire. Hence Apple isthe benchmark for creative and innovative management process
1.1. Evaluate current creative and innovative management processes in an organization
Apple being the most innovative company has an innovative management in place.
a) Apple as a technology company is managed and run by technologist and engineers. It
is difficult to maintain a similar culture when the company grows due to growth in
organisation size and structure. Aligning the mind set of all people working in the
organisation need a different approach for grown up companies. Apple’s management
wanted to maintain the culture of people taking initiatives and ownership was the
only way it could survive the cut throat market competition in technology domain.
The only to make people taking initiative and ownership is giving them a sense of
leadership. To effectively manage such a big organisation, the organisation itself is
divided into small project teams and are managed by engineers, This strongly ensures
that that the project manager understand the technology and would be able to guide
his/her team when ever required.
b) Hi-tech product also can have defects. A great organisation’s culture lies in finding
the defect rather than hiding and solving it. There should not be any restriction on
anybody to find defects and mistakes in a product. People at Apple use the Apple
product and during the usage they come across defects and also come with innovative
improvement plans. Employees at Apple are free to suggest and fix any problem.
Also there is freedom in Apple to implement the suggested corrective or
improvisation measure by anybody in a short span of time. Apple has made sure that
the approval process time for such projects to be less and have maintained a nun-
bureaucratic way unlike conventional bureaucratic organisation where it may take
month to get approval for improvement projects
c) Companies who are playing in technological domain are of tendency to compete and
either try to benchmark the competitor or trying to make something better then the
competitor. Unlike any other company, Apple’s main focus is on improving its own
product rather than comparing with competitors’ product.
d) Apple has another very interesting way to remain innovative, As it is widely known
that innovation are easy if we let the people think in a different and dedicated way.
That is the reason a small companies and start up companies have more innovation
then a already grown up company. Apple has maintained its “Start up “culture despite
of its size. This helps align entrepreneurial mind set of employee and make them
owner of their respective process.
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In the past few years, the market of mobile phones and mobile accessories has seen a sudden surge in terms of both popularity in the market and the variety, thereby contributing heavily to the growth aspect of the mobile phones. The leas and bound that the mobile market has taken in the last few years especially in the developing nations such as India has been a very direct source of employment thus income to the national economies thereby resulting in great employment opportunities, revenues and the increased GDP of the nation (Chowdhury et al, 2010). The contribution of the mobile business in contributing to the GDP of India has been quite noticeable and there are many global companies which have made huge prediction regarding the same as well. According to McKinsey, in the next ten years in India, 350-550 million people are expected to be connected via the mobile internet technology thereby resulting in a contribution of $550 billion to $1 trillion to the GDP (Hindu Business Line, 2015). In other words, he staggering figures are close to account for almost 20 to 30 % hike in the GDP figures and close to 3-6 times the contribution to the GDP in the present scenario (Hindu Business Line, 2015). Though the above mentioned figures and predictions seemed to usher the Indian economy in to a mode wherein there lies a bright future for the mobile technology and the Indian economy, none of this can be true if the aspect of Indian consumer behaviour was not taken into account.
In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the aspect of the effect of various factors on the consumer behavior in India in order to study the phenomenon. India is a land of many states and each of these states has its own culture. This land of multiple cultures thus tends to influence the aspect of consumer behavior in a variety of ways. The fact of the matter here is that different cultures have influenced people in ways which this research paper will investigate. The market is full of a variety of options when it comes to mobile phones. The mobile phones that are available in the market and are also the preferred choice in terms of mass demand is of the ‘smart phone’ variety than the old model which are not ‘smart’ and getting obscure by the day (Mooij and Hofstede, 2011).
There was a time when mobile phones were considered to be a luxury rather than being a necessity. However, in the last few decades the scenario has turn a complete turnaround. Today the use of smart phones is predictably so enormous that the sales of non smart phones are limited. Smart phones have been instrumental in joining people from different parts of the world. There is an immense use of smart phones when it comes to being connected via the internet (Tossel et al., 2012). In this modern age of the internet, being connected has become all the more important as there are many online social applications networking platforms which are used by people to stay connected despite the huge geographical differences. Apart from staying connected there are a variety of other uses such as that of health care benefits that can be reaped by people when they have a smart phone (Boulos et al., 2011). In short, what started as a luxurious items has slowly but surely transformed the face of the telecommunication sector in India. It has acquired nothing less than a cult status in the market. People tend to vie with each other in order to be a proud owner of the most smartest cell phones available at that point in time.
Of all the world economies that are growing at a fast pace, there is no doubt that Indian economy tend to be a part of that list. The fact that the country’s economy is a part of that list is a testimonial to the fact that development is the keyword in the region. No development in the current scenario can be complete without the telecommunication industry and the kind of contribution it has made toward the country’s economy. The usage of mobile phones has increased in the past few years and is set to be even more in the years few years as well (Financial Express, 2013). The Indian market has been an open arena for a variety of mobile phone companies which tend to be eager to launch their products in the Indian market. Owing to this trend, the Indian market has undergone a great change and has become more competitive. It is this competition amongst the various players in the Indian market which makes the base for the research all the more interesting. With so many competitors around, it is indeed interesting to know the extent of the impact of the various parameters which define Indian consumer behaviour when it comes to smart phones. The research study includes all the probable factors within reason which may contribute to effect Indian consumers when it comes to buying smart phones in the Indian context.
Indian Smartphone market is predicted to grow because the 3G network coverage is increasing and there is increase in demand of high in smartphones in 2014. Smartphone manufacturer square measure targeting building application stores and rising service quality to offer a gorgeous worth proposition and strengthen their market position. The Indian market was dominated by Nokia phones (3Q2013, 2013). Different brands like Motorola, Samsung, Sony and LG didn’t vie with Nokia phones as Nokia phones square measure easier to use as compared to the cell phones of different firms. Now, Samsung is that the main player in Indian Smartphone market with 1/3rd of Indian market share. Indian brands like Micromax and Karbonn square measure at the second and third position in market share with twenty first and 100% world firms like Sony, Nokia and Apple square measure hierarchical fourth, fifth and sixth (3Q2013, 2013).
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An American option can be exercised on any business day within the life of an option including the expiration date. European option can be exercised only at the expiration date. The key difference between American and European options relates to when the options can be exercised:
Options contracts traded on future exchanges are mainly American-style, whereas those trade over the counter are mainly European.
Nearly all stock and equity options are American options, while indexes are generally represented by European options. Commodity options can be either style.
Traditional monthly American options expire the third Saturday of every month. They are closed for trading the Friday prior. *Expire the third Friday if the first of the month begins on a Saturday.
European options expire the Friday prior to the third Saturday of every month. Therefore they are closed for trading the Thursday prior to the third Saturday of every month.
An investor holding an American-style option and seeking optimal value will only exercise it before maturity under certain circumstances. Owners who wish to realise the full value of their option will mostly prefer to sell it on, rather than exercise it immediately, sacrificing the time value.
European options are typically valued using the Black–Scholes or Black model formula.This is a relatively simple Partial Differential Equation equation with a closed-form solution that has become standard in the financial community. There are no general formulae for American options, but a choice of models to approximate the price is available
Where an American and a European option are otherwise identical (having the same strike price etc.), the American option will be worth at least as much as the European (which it entails). If it is worth more, then the difference is a guide to the likelihood of early exercise. In practice, one can calculate the Black–Scholes price of a European option that is equivalent to the American option (except for the exercise dates of course). The difference between the two prices can then be used to calibrate the more complex American option model.
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The Smartphone market is always alive and booming, thanks to the excellent product innovations by the mobile companies. Today’s consumer has access to the entire pool of information through various sources, especially the Internet and hence they are well equipped with desired info while researching and evaluating different alternatives before making the actual purchase. Due to this, Smartphone companies are compelled to invest significantly in R & D and come up with super competitive products. Despite rising prices of high end smart phones, there is an ever rising demand for smart phones. Smartphone companies also have been coming up with cutting edge innovations and hence, the consumer gets to choose between a wide range of high end smart phones. In the last few years, Samsung has emerged as a key player in the Smartphone market and has managed to grab a huge chunk of the market share. At the same time, the sales of some brands which used to be major players in the Smartphone market once, have dipped considerably.
Across Europe*, Android remains the number one OS with 73.3% share. Apple is second with 16.6% share and Windows third with 8.1%. *The big five European markets includes UK, Germany, France, Italy and Spain. (Kantar Worldpanel ComTech, 2014).
In Italy, the smart phone penetration in 2013 was 41.3% compared to 27.9% in 2012 (Our Mobile Planet, 2013). With tremendous increase in smart phone usage in recent years, people consider various factors while they decide to purchase a smart phone. A consumer’s buying behavior is influenced by cultural, social and personal factors (Kotler & Keller, 2012). Consumer behavior might be affected by many factors like individual motivations, attitudes, values, needs, personality traits, social and cultural background, sex, age, professional status and some social influences by family, colleagues, friends and society. This study aims to assess the consumer buying behavior of Samsung Galaxy Note 5 compared to other smart phones in the Italy market. The study is primarily focused on customer buying behavior, consumer’s needs, evaluation of the alternatives and their post purchase satisfaction. The study also covers the existing Samsung Galaxy Note 5 customers, their assessment of its performance and areas for improvement. The study involves qualitative and quantitative research through focus group discussions, interviews, surveys, etc. Moreover this research also takes us through the five step decision making process of consumer purchase. The entire consumer’s purchase process can be classified into a five step problem solving process namely need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase and post purchase behavior. This five stage decision making model is most appropriate for the consumer behavior of purchase decision for complex purchases. In the same manner, purchase decision for smart phones follows the same process but in some cases, the buyer decision can also be affected by specific bias associated with some brands. A lot of decision behavior exhibited by consumers can differ from one person to another because they may use different processes to choose rather than only using mathematical modeling (Swait and Adamowicz, 2001). Purchase decisions of many consumers may be affected by both rational factors as well as emotional factors. A younger consumer would prefer emotional features over rational features in smart phones (Wilska, 2003). This makes it apparent that there can be numerous factors that affect a consumer’s desire and inclination to purchase a Samsung Galaxy Note 5 over other smart phones available in the market.
The objective of this research is to understand consumer purchase patterns and what they expect from smart phones so that the information can be used in relevant product launches. This research also aims to identify the opportunities and market gaps where Smartphone companies can position their products to tap those segments. This study also intends to identify the perception of Samsung Galaxy Note 5 Smartphone among the consumers and incorporate the data for future researches on similar lines.
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